Luttinger Liquid at the Edge of a Graphene Vacuum

Herbert Fertig

Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA

We demonstrate that an undoped two-dimensional carbon plane (graphene) whose bulk is in the integer quantum Hall regime supports a non-chiral Luttinger liquid at an armchair edge. This behavior arises due to the unusual dispersion of the non-interacting edges states, causing a crossing of bands with different valley and spin indices at the edge. We demonstrate that this stabilizes a domain wall structure with a spontaneously ordered phase degree of freedom. This coherent domain wall supports gapless charged excitations, and has a power law tunneling I-V with a non-integral exponent. In proximity to a bulk lead, the edge may undergo a quantum phase transition between the Luttinger liquid phase and a metallic state when the edge confinement is sufficiently strong relative to the interaction energy scale.