Three dimensional magnetic systems promise significant opportunities for both fundamental physics, and technological applications, for example providing higher density devices and new functionalities associated with complex topology and greater degrees of freedom [1,2]. With recent advances in both characterization and nanofabrication techniques, the experimental investigation of three dimensional magnetic systems is now possible [3,4,5], opening the door to the elucidation of new physical properties, and representing the first steps towards higher dimensional magnetic devices.
Harnessing these recent advances in X-ray magnetic tomographic imaging, we have been able to map both the static configuration [3,5], and dynamical behaviour [4,6], of topological magnetic structures [3-8]. Understanding these complex configurations is challenging: recent advances in analytical techniques [7] have provided new capabilities to locate and identify 3D magnetic solitons, leading to the first observation of nanoscale magnetic vortex rings [7,9].
As well as existing within bulk and thin film systems, 3D spin textures can be introduced via the patterning of complex 3D magnetic nanostructures [10]. Such textures are not limited to the magnetization: we have recently observed highly coupled curvilinear nanosystems leading to the formation of topological textures within the magnetic stray field [8].
These new experimental capabilities for 3D magnetic systems open the door to complex three-dimensional magnetic structures, and their dynamic behaviour. In this talk I will discuss these new experimental capabilities of X-ray magnetic tomography and nanofabrication, and how they open the door to the elucidation of complex three-dimensional magnetic structures, and their dynamic behaviour.
References
[1] Fernández-Pacheco et al., Nature Communications 8, 15756 (2017).
[2] C. Donnelly and V. Scagnoli, J. Phys. D: Cond. Matt. 32, 213001 (2020).
[3] C. Donnelly et al., Nature 547, 328 (2017).
[4] C. Donnelly et al., Nature Nanotechnology 15, 356 (2020).
[5] K. Witte, et al., Nano Letters 20, 1305 (2020).
[6] S. Finizio et al., Nano Letters (2022)
[7] C. Donnelly et al., Nat. Phys. 17, 316 (2020)
[8] C. Donnelly et al., Nature Nanotechnology 17, 136 (2022)
[9] N. Cooper, PRL. 82, 1554 (1999).
[10] L. Skoric et al., Nano Letters 20, 184 (2020).