Research Highlights

Local Thermodynamics Govern Formation and Dissolution of Caenorhabditis elegans P Granule Condensates


A. W. Fritsch, A. F. Diaz-Delgadillo, O. Adame-Arana, C. Hoege, M. Mittasch, M. Kreysing, M. Leaver, A. A. Hyman, F. Jülicher, and C. A. Weber
PNAS 118 (37) (2021)
[PDF (1,8 MB)]

Quantifying Entropy Production in Active Fluctuations of the Hair-Cell Bundle from Time Irreversibility and Uncertainty Relations

Hair bundles are the mechanical sensors of sensory cells of the ear. They use active processes to amplify weak signals to detect sound in the ear of vertebrates. We study the activity of spontaneously oscillating hair bundles and quantify the time reversal asymmetry as a measure of irreversibility and dissipation. We find on average a lower bound on entropy production of about 3k_B/s, revealing the active nature of the spontaneous movements.

É. Roldán, J. Barral, P. Martin, J. M R Parrondo, and F. Jülicher
New J. Phys. 23, 083013 (2021)
[PDF (4,1 MB)]

Force Generation by Protein–DNA Co-Condensation

Many proteins bind to DNA. This is important for key cellular processes such as gene expression. Here we show that co-condensation of proteins and DNA can lead to the formation of small spherical condensates that exert forces on the free DNA that remains outside. A simple droplet model that takes into account surface tension and bulk free energy can quantitatively account for the observed forces and their dependence on DNA length. Our results suggest that condensation forces could play a role in chromatin organization.

T. Quail, S. Golfier, M. Elsner, K. Ishihara, V. Murugesan, R. Renger, F. Jülicher, and J. Brugués
Nat. Phys. 17, 1007 (2021)
[PDF (11,6 MB)]

A Hydraulic Instability Drives the Cell Death Decision in the Nematode Germline

Newly formed oocytes in the gonad of the roundworm are large cells which grow at the expense of other precursor cells that shrink and disappear. Which cells are selected to become mature oocytes and which ones disappear by cell death, is a fundamental question in biology. Here we show that the transition between growth and shrinkage results from a hydraulic instability that breaks symmetry between cells spontaneously, driven by pressure differences and fluid flows. This suggests that it is not primarily chemical signals that trigger this life and death decision but rather a physical instability.

N. T. Chartier, A. Mukherjee, J. Pfanzelter, S. Fürthauer, B. T. Larson, A. W. Fritsch, R. Amini, M. Kreysing, F. Jülicher, and S. W. Grill
Nat. Phys. 17, 920 (2021)
[PDF (7,3 MB)]

Hydraulic and Electric Control of Cell Spheroids

Multicellular spheroids are models for the dynamics and the material properties of tissues or tumors. Here we show using a generic theory of spheroid dynamics that externally imposed electric currents or fluid flows could be used to control growth dynamics and size of cell spheroids. Such currents or flows could be applied using for example micropipettes or small tubes. Our work has potential applications in medicine and could be used to suppress tumors.

C. Duclut, J. Prost, and F. Jülicher
PNAS, 118 (19) (2021)
[PDF (0,2MB)]

Self-Organized Patterning of Cell Morphology via Mechanosensitive Feedback

Cells often exhibit elongated shapes and such cell elongation can form patterns in a tissue. Here we investigate the origins of such patterns in cell shape. We show that in the developing fly wing patters of anisotropic active processes induce oriented cell rearrangements which in turn drive cell elongation in patterns with a radial symmetry. Our work reveals a general mechanism for the emergence of cell shape patterns in tissues.

N. A. Dye, M. Popovic, K. V. Iyer, J. Fuhrmann, R. Piscitello-Gómez, S. Eaton, and F. Jülicher

eLife, doi: 10.7554/eLife.57964 (2021)
[PDF (30,8 MB)]

Apico-Basal Cell Compression Regulates Lamin A/C Levels in Epithelial Tissues

Tissues can transduce mechanical stimuli to chemical signals that are processed in the cell. Lamins form filaments in the nucleus that provide a scaffold. These filaments are involved in machano transduction. Here we show that the amount of lamins in the nucleau are controlled by cell shape and change if cells are compressed along the apical basal axis.

K. V. Iyer, A. Taubenberger, S. A. Zeidan, N. A. Dye, S. Eaton, and F. Jülicher

Nat Commun 12, 1756 (2021)
[PDF (6,6 MB)]

Active Viscoelasticity of Odd Materials

We discuss the active matter with chiral asymmetries. Active chiral systems can have unconventional material properties. Generalizing the concepts of odd viscosity and odd elasticity to rheology, we characterize visco-elastic systems with chiral frequency dependent odd moduli. We show that such systems exhibit wave-like modes with speeds and damping set by the odd elastic coefficient.

D. Banerjee, V. Vitelli, F. Jülicher, and P. Surówka

Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 138001 (2021)
[PDF (0,5 MB)]

Theory of Time Delayed Genetic Oscillations with External Noisy Regulation

We present a general model for the noisy dynamics of genetic oscillations such as the circadian clock or the segmentation oscillator.
Our work shows that genetic oscillations with diverse biological contexts can be understood in a common framework based on a delayed negative feedback system
and regulator dynamics.

J. Negrete Jr, I. M. Lengyel, L. Rohde, R. A. Desai, A. C. Oates, and F. Jülicher

New J. Phys. 23, 033030 (2021)
[PDF (2,8 MB)]

Transcription Organizes Euchromatin via Microphase Separation

DNA is packed in the cell nucleus together with many proteins in the form of chromatin. This chromatin is very dynamic and the chromatin is spatially organized in inactive domains and pockets of activity where genetic information is read and transcribed to RNA. Here we show that the organization of active domains can be described as a microphase separation phenomenon in an active system. This microphase separation can account for the formation of many small domains which do not coarseninto larger structures.

L. Hilbert, Y. Sato, K. Kuznetsova, T. Bianucci, H. Kimura, F. Jülicher, A. Honigmann, V. Zaburdaev, and N. L. Vastenhouw

Nat Commun 12, 1360, (2021)
[PDF (5,6 MB)]

Epithelial Colonies In Vitro Elongate through Collective Effects

J. Comelles, SS Soumya, L. Lu, E. Le-Maout, S. Anvitha, G. Salbreux, F. Jülicher, M. M Inamdar, D. Riveline

eLife 2021;10:e57730 (2021)
[PDF (27,7 MB)]

Continuum Theory of Active Phase Separation in Cellular Aggregates

H.-S. Kuan, W. Pönisch, F. Jülicher, and V. Zaburdaev

Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 018102 (2021)
[PDF (1,7 MB)]

Quantification of Nematic Cell Polarity in Three-dimensional Tissues

A. Scholich, S. Syga, H. Morales-Navarrete, F. Segovia- Miranda, H. Nonaka, K. Meyer, W. de Back, L. Brusch, Y. Kalaidzidis, M. Zerial, F. Jülicher, B. M. Friedrich

PLOS Computational Biology 17(8): e1009349 (2020)
[PDF (6,8 MB)]

Protein Condensates as Aging Maxwell Fluids

Cells organize their biochemistry by forming liquid-like condensates of biomolecules that can act as tiny reactors to localize chemical reactions. Researchers from the Physics of Complex Systems together with with colleagues of the MPI of molecular cell biology and genetics in Dresden investigate the physical nature and material properties of protein condensates using microrheology techniques. They find that many protein condensates increase their viscosity with time and slow their dynamics, while always remaining soft and liquid-like. This is suggestive of glassy behaviors and could have important implications for cellular dynamics.

L. Jawerth, E. Fischer-Friedrich, S. Saha, J. Wang, T. Franzmann, X. Zhang, J. Sachweh, M. Ruer, M. Ijavi, S. Saha, J. Mahamid, A. A. Hyman, F. Jülicher

Science 370, 1317–1323 (2020)
[PDF (2 MB)]

Extreme-Value Statistics of Stochastic Transport Processes

When a molecular motor moves stochastically along a track it has an average speed but somtimes speeds up, slows down or may even occasionally move backwards. Here we study the statistics of extrema of distance traveled during a given time. We discover a relationship between relaxation time spectra of extreme value statistics and eigenvalue spectra of random matricies. We show that random matricies can be used to efficiently generate extrema distributions. Our work provides new insights in the stochastic thermodynamics of transport processes.

A. Guillet, E. Roldan, and F. Jülicher

New J. Phys. 22, 123038 (2020)
[PDF (1,8 MB)]

Power-Law Population Heterogeneity Governs Epidemic Waves

We generalize the classical Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model of epidemic waves to take into account population heterogeneity. We introduce a single new paramete that captures a distribution of the susceptibility of individuals to become infected. This generalized model has the same mathematical and computational complexity as the original model and can be solved exactly. We show that for a broad distribution of infection susceptibility herd immunity is reached faster than usually expected.

J. Neipel, J. Bauermann, S. Bo, T. Harmon, F. Jülicher

PLoS ONE 15 (10), e0239678 (2020)
[PDF (2,8 MB)]

Liquid Phase Separation Controlled by pH

We study effects of solution pH on the phase separation of macromolecules. Chemical changes associated with proton exchange with water modify the charge state of the macromolecules and thereby the strength of molecular interactions. We predict a reentrant behavior as a function of pH and show that the region of phase separation is typically broader near the isoelectric point. Our work could accouont for the behaviors of proteins that form liquid like condensates in cells.

O. Adame-Arana, C. A. Weber, V. Zaburdaev, J. Prost, and F. Jülicher

Biophys. J. 119, 1590 (2020)
[PDF (1,9 MB)]

Flagellar Length Control in Biflagellate Eukaryotes: Time-of-Flight, Shared Pool, Train Traffic and Cooperative Phenomena

Flagella are hair-like appendages of many eucaryotic cells. They grow via the assembly of new building blocks that are transported to the tip by a intraflagellar transport via molecular motors. A key question is to understand how flagellar length is regulated. We present a stochastic model of flagellar length control where flagellar length is regulated via the time of travel from the base to the tip and back. We relate our theory to experiments and make predictions for flagellar length fluctuations.

S. Patra, F. Jülicher, and D. Chowdhury

New J. Phys. 22, 083009 (2020)
[PDF (6,5 MB)]

Active Forces Shape the Metaphase Single through a Mechanical Instability

The mitotic spindle has a fundamental role in cell division and physically separated the duplicated chromosomes to distribute them reliably in two daugther cells. The spindle can be understood as an active liquid crystal in which microtubules are aligned in a bipolar organization and molecular motors generate active stresses. Here we show that the shape of the spindle results through a mechanical instability by an interplay of active stresses in the bulk and at the surface. Our work reveals how motor proteins can mold liquid crystalline droplets, and has implications for the design of active soft materials.

D. Oriola, F. Jülicher, and J. Brugués

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 117(28) 16154 (2020)
[PDF (1,2 MB)]

BMP Signaling Gradient Scaling in the Zebrafish Pectoral Fin

Morphogen gradients are involved in the patterning of developing tissues and also in the regulation of tissue growth. Here we study the development and growth of the zebrafish fin. We show that the profile shape and the amplitude of BMP signaling activity scales with tissue length. This scaling behavior is consistent with a growth control scenario by which relative rates of change of a signal promote tissue growth.

R. Mateus, L. Holtzer, C. Seum, Z. Hadjivasiliou, M. Dubois, F. Jülicher, and M. Gonzalez-Gaitan

Cell Report 30, 4292 (2020)
[PDF (4,9 MB)]

Phase Separation Provides a Mechanism to Reduce Noise in Cells

Phase coexistence between a droplet and a surrounding fluid can keep concentration levels within a narrow range. Here we show the physics of phase separation provides a general mechanism to buffer and reduce thermal and active concentration fluctuations in cells.

A. Klosin, F. Oltsch, T. Harmon, A. Honigmann, F. Jülicher, A. A. Hyman and C. Zechner

Science 367, 464 (2020)
[PDF (1,9 MB)]

Casimir Stresses in Active Nematic Films

Casimir forces are fluctuation-induced forces that act between two parallel surfaces. The classical example are weak attractive interactions between conducting surfaces due to fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Casimir stresse between surfaces due to thermal fluctuations can be studied in condensed matter systems such as liquid crystals. Here we investigate the Casimir stresses resulting from fluctuations in active nematics.

A. Basu, J.-F. Joanny, F. Jülicher and J. Prost

New J. Phys. 21, 123046 (2019)
[PDF (541 kB)]

Minimal Model of Cellular Symmetry Breaking

We discuss the mechano-chemical self-organization of an active fluid on a spherical sur-face. We find that a minimal model can generate patterns of flow, concentration and stress that exhibit key features of fundamental cellular processes such as cell symmetry breaking, cell division and cell locomotion. Furthermore, we show that this system provides insights in the mechanochemical self-organization of shapes. Our work thus provides a framework for the study of general principles of cellular self-organization.

A. Mietke, V. Jemseena, K. Vijay Kumar, I. F. Sbalzarini and F. Jülicher

Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 188101 (2019)
[PDF (623 kB)]

Soluble Tubulin is Significantly Enriched at Mitotic Centrosomes

Centrosomes play an key role for the organization of the mitotic spindle and serve as sites of microtubule nucleation. In order to understand centrosomal nucleation of microtubules it is important to know whether centrosomes locally enrich soluble tubulin. Here we deter-mine the spatial distribution of filamentous and soluble tubulin near the centrosome and show that soluble tubulin is locally enriched in centrosomes. We quantify tubulin concentra-tion inside and outside the centrosome. Our work suggests that centrosomal microtubule nucleation is mediated by locally increased tubulin concentrations.

J. Baumgart, M. Kirchner, S. Redemann, A. Bond, J. Woodruff, J.-M. Verbavatz, F. Jülicher,
T. Müller-Reichert, A. A. Hyman and J. Brugués

J Cell Biol., 218, 3977 (2019)
[PDF (1,9 MB)]

Integral Fluctuation Relations for Entropy Production at Stopping Times

We discuss fluctuation theorems for non-equilibrium stochastic processes that follow from the Martingale property of the exponential of the stochastic entropy at stopping times. Our work reveals generic features of non-equilibrium processes.

I. Neri, E. Roldan, S. Pigolotti and F. Jülicher

J. Stat. Mech., 104006 (2019)
[PDF (2,9 MB)]

Fluid Pumping and Active Flexoelectricity can Promote Lumen Nucleation in Cell Assemblies

Fluid filled lumen often form in tissues during development. They can serve as transport channels such as in the liver or the pancreas. Here we discuss the physical principles under-lying the nucleation of lumen in spherical cell assemblies. We show that in some regimes lumen nucleation is similar to classical nucleation theory. Surprisingly, we also find that tissue ferroelectricity, the coupling of bending to electric fields, can facilitate lumen nuclea-tion. Our results show that electro-hydraulic effects could play an important role in tissue morphogenesis.
C. Duclut, N. Sarkar, J. Prost and F. Jülicher

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 19264 (2019)
[PDF (1,3 MB)]

Active Cargo Positioning in Antiparallel Transport Networks

Using micropatterns of actin polymerization in vitro, we investigate stochastic transport of colloidal beads in antiparallel networks of overlapping actin filaments. A theoretical description of the system reveals the key physical rules for cargo transport and positioning in filament networks of mixed polarity.

M. Richard, C. Blanch-Mercader, H. Ennomani, W. Cao, E. M. De La Cruz J.-F. Joanny, F. Jülicher, L. Blanchoinc, and P. Martin

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 14835 (2019)
[PDF (2,1 MB)]

Liquid-Crystal Organization of Liver Tissue

Three-dimensional tissues are amorphous arrangements of cells which can exhibit structural order that is linked to their function. Here, we investigate principles that underlie the organization of liver tissue. The liver has important metabolic functions that require transport networks of blood and bile that connect to liver cells. Here we show by quantifying cell polarity and cell nematics together with the morphology of transport networks that liver tissue has the organization of a nematic liquid crystal with large scale orientational order.

H. Morales-Navarrete, H. Nonaka, A. Scholich, F. Segovia-Miranda, W. de Back, K. Meyer, R. L. Bogorad, V. Koteliansky, L. Brusch, Y. Kalaidzidis, F. Jülicher, B. M. Friedrich, M. Zerial

eLife 2019;8:e44860 (2019)
[PDF (5,1 MB)]

Field Induced Cell Proliferation and Death in a Model Epithelium

Epithelia are sheet like tissue layers. Here we present a theoretical study of the dynamics of a thick polar epithelium that is subjected to the action of both an electric field and a hydrodynamic flow that permeates the tissue. We develop a generalized continuum hydrodynamic description and describe the tissue as a two-component fluid system. Considering a planar geometry, we find that finite thickness tissue layers exist only in a restricted region of phase space and that relatively modest electric fields or imposed external flows can induce either proliferation or death.

N. Sarkar, J. Prost and F. Jülicher

New J. Phys. 21, 043035 (2019)
[PDF (1,2 MB)]

Extreme Reductions of Entropy in an Electronic Double Dot

We study negative fluctuations of stochastic entropy production in an experimental system of a electronic double dot. The system operates at non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. We show that the average values of the minima of stochastic entropy production lie above the lower bound predicted by theory. We also extend our theory by deriving a general bound for the average value of the maximum heat absorbed by a mesoscopic system from the environment and compare this result with experimental data.

S. Singh, É. Roldán, I. Neri, I. M Khaymovich, D. S. Golubev, V. F. Maisi, J. T. Peltonen, F. Jülicher and J. P. Pekola

Phys. Rev. B 99, 115422 (2019)
[PDF (3,7 MB)]

Body size-dependent energy storage causes Kleiber’s law scaling of the metabolic rate in planarians

The metabolic rate of organisms varies with body mass. This dependence is well captured by a 3/4-power law scaling relation called Kleiber’s law. The physiological basis of Kleiber’s law are not understood. Here we show that the metabolic rate of flatworms obeys Kleiber’s law. In these animals Kleiber’s law does results from an increase of mass per cell with body mass but not from a decrease of metabolic rate per cell. An analysis of the energy balance combined with experiments shows that body size dependent energy stores are key to the emergence of Kleiber’s law in flatworms.  

A. A. Thommen, S. Werner, O. Frank, J. Philipp, O. Knittelfelder, Y. Quek, K. Fahmy, A. Shevchenko, B. M. Friedrich, Frank Jülicher, J. C. Rink
eLife 2019;8:e38187 (2019)
[PDF (3,7 MB)]

Self-organized Shape Dynamics of Active Surfaces

Biological form emerges from dynamic processes that couple chemical signals to active mechanical processes. Here we present a simple framework to study the mechanochemical self-organization of surfaces. Surface shape is governed by force and torque balances in the presence of active surface stresses. These stresses are themselves regulated by diffusing molecular species. Our work reveals general principles of the mechano-chemical self-organization of geometries. 

A. Mietke, F. Jülicher and I. Sbalzarini
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 29 (2019)
[PDF (3,7 MB)]

Guiding Self-organized Pattern Formation in Cell Polarity Establishment

We present a quantitative theory of cell polarity establishment. Our model accounts for the dynamics of flows and concentration profiles in the cell cortex that emerge from mechano-chemical self-organization. We show that this self-organized process is guided by symmetry breaking cues. This system provides a paradynamic example for an important class of pattern forming systems in biology.  

P. Gross, K. V. Kumar, N. W. Goehring, J. S. Bois, C. Hoege, F. Jülicher and S. W. Grill
Nature Physics, 15, 293 (2019)
[PDF (5,4 MB)]

Salt-Dependent Rheology and Surface Tension of Protein Condensates Using Optical Traps

We develop a method based on optical tweezers to study the frequency dependent rheology of micron sized droplets. We use this method to determine the rheology of protein condensates that serve as simple models for membraneless organelles in cells. Our work shows that protein condensates are visco-elastic fluids with a viscosity that strongly depends on salt concentration. 

L. M. Jawerth, M. Ijavi, M. Ruer, S. Saha, M. Jahnel, A. A. Hyman, F. Jülicher and E. Fischer-Friedrich
Phys. Rev. Lett 121, 258101 (2018)
[PDF (537 kB)]

Exactly Solvable Dynamics of Forced Polymer Loops

We consider a simple model of a closed polymer loop that is pinned at one point and is subject to an external force. We show that this model can be formally mapped to an asymmetric simple exclusion process. This link provides a link between the statistics of many particle systems and polymer physics. Our result can be applied to the dynamics of DNA loops under forcing. 

W. Huang, Y. T. Ling, D. Frömberg, J. Shin, F. Jülicher and V. Zaburdaev
New J. Phys. 20, 113005 (2018)
[PDF (1,1 MB)]

Positioning of Particles in Active Droplets

Droplets which form by liquid-liquid phase separation from a solution can provide chemical compartments that localize chemical reactions in space. We consider a simple model of such chemically active droplets in which small colloidal particles are immersed. We show that chemical reactions can lead to a positioning of particles to the geometric center of the droplet. Our work is relevant to the centering of centrioles inside centrosomes of cells. 

D. Zwicker, J. Baumgart, S. Redemann, T. Müller-Reichert, A. A. Hyman and F. Jülicher
Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 158102 (2018)
[PDF (594 kB)]

Differential Lateral and Basal Tension Drive Folding of Drosophila Wing Discs through Two Distinct Mechanisms

We investigate the process by which a flat sheet of cells can undergo a shape change that leads to the formation of a fold in the tissue. Using a combination of experiments and theory we focus on folds that form in the developing fly wing tissue. Our work reveals that a localized reduction of contractile tension on the basal side of the tissue is a key mechanism for fold formation. Furthermore, an increase in lateral contractile tension provides a second mechanism. Our combination of lateral and basal tension estimates with a mechanical tissue model reveals how simple modulations of surface and edge tension drive complex three-dimensional morphological changes. 

L. Sui, S. Alt, M. Weigert, N. Dye, S. Eaton, F. Jug, E. W. Myers, F. Jülicher, G. Salbreux and C. Dahmann
Nature Communications 9, 4620 (2018)
[PDF (2,3 MB)]

Role of Hydrodynamic Flows in Chemically Driven Droplet Division

Chemically active droplets provide simple models for protocells. They are maintained away from thermodynamic equilibrium, they take up material, turn over my chemical processes and release reaction products. Most interestingly, they can spontaneously divide and undergo cycles of growth and division. Here, we study the role of hydrodynamic flows for the shape changes and division of chemically active droplets. Our work shows that hydrodynamic flows tends to stabilize spherical shapes and that droplet division occurs for sufficiently strong chemical driving, sufficiently large droplet viscosity or sufficiently small surface tension. 

R. Seyboldt and F. Jülicher
New J. Phys. 20, 105010 (2018)
[PDF (1,9 MB)]

Discontinuous switching of position of two coexisting phases

We investigate how the positions of a condensed phase can be controlled by using concentration gradients of a regulator that influences phase separation. We find a novel first order phase transition at which the position of the condensed phase switches in a discontinuous manner. This mechanism could have implications for the spatial organisation of biological cells and provides a control mechanism for droplets in microfluidic systems.

S. Krüger, C. A. Weber, J.-U. Sommer, F. Jülicher
New J. Phys. 20, 075009 (2018)
[PDF (1,2 MB)]

Critical Point in Self-Organized Tissue Growth

We present a theory of growth control inspired by biological tissues during development. We identify a critical point of the feedback dynamics where a graded profile of a secreted molecule regulates growth. At this critical point, growth is spatially homogeneous and concentration profiles exhibit exact scaling with size. We propose that the observed approximate growth homogeneity and scaling in the fly wing imaginal disk are signatures of this critical point.

D. Aguilar-Hidalgo, S. Werner, O. Wartlick, M. Gonzalez-Gaitan, B. M. Friedrich
and F. Jülicher
Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 198102 (2018)
[PDF (2,9 MB)]

Chemical event chain model of coupled genetic oscillators

We introduce a stochastic model of coupled genetic oscillators in which chains of chemical events involved in gene regulation and expression are represented as sequences of Poisson processes. We study the quality of noisy oscilations in different parameter regimes. we show that key features of the stochastic oscillations can be captured by an effective model for phase oscillators that are coupled by signals with distributed delays.

D. J. Jörg, L. G. Morelli and F. Jülicher
Phys. Rev. E. 97, 032409 (2018)
[PDF (1,2 MB)]

Generic Properties of Stochastic Entropy Production

We present a stochastic differential equation for the time evolution of entropy in Langevin processes. We show that entropy fluctuation exhibit universal properties which are a conse-quence of a simple stochastic time transformation.

S. Pigolotti, I. Neri, É. Roldán and F. Jülicher
Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 140601 (2017)
[PDF (651 kB)]

Mechanics of Active Surfaces

Active matter is driven at molecular scales away from thermodynamic equilibrium by energy transfusing processes. The theory of bulk active matter is well developed and reveals uncon-ventional material properties and the emergence of active stresses. Here we study active matter that is organised in thin films or sheets that are embedded in three dimensional space. We derive a general theory of the mechanics and the material properties of active surfaces that can account for the interplay of active mechanics and surface deformations.

G. Salbreux and F. Jülicher
Phys. Rev. E 96, 032404 (2017)
[PDF (1 MB)]